Mustard consists of mustard oil, protein, carbohydrates, myrosinase (important enzyme), water, minerals, mucilage and fiber. White mustard contains the active ingredient sinalbin and black mustard/brown mustard contains the active ingredient sinigrin. The proportion of mustard oil in the mustard seed is 25-30 percent.
In India, mustard oil is used for cooking USA and the EU, mustard oils are not so readily approved for consumption because they contain toxic isotiohocyanates as defense substances against predators, which are present in bound form. This is why Indians first heat mustard oils to high when cooking, then allow them to cool before use. The process is said to destroy the harmful ingredients.
Mustard oil does not taste spicy, but rather nutty, because the spicy ingredients are not soluble in oil. The pungency only comes from the addition of water. The protein contained in mustard can absorb four times the amount of water. This causes the mustard flour to swell and gives the mustard a paste-like appearance.
Yellow mustard has a higher swelling capacity than other mustard varieties and also forms more mucilage due to the swelling of the outer skin. The mustard becomes hot through the enzyme myrosinase. The enzyme is activated by the addition of water and breaks down the mustard oil glycosides (as in cress or horseradish) sinalbin and sinigrin into glucose and essential mustard oils. One essential oil of these is allysene mustard oil. It smells pungent and brings tears to the eyes.
Stuck in a tablespoon of mustard:
- 3.9 g carbohydrates
- 3.2 g fat
- 2.8 g protein
- 1.6 g fiber
In ten grams of seeds there are 790 µg vitamin B3, 54 µg vitamin B1, 20 µg selenium, 2 mg vitamin E, 52 mg calcium, 2 mg iron, 37 mg magnesium.
Is mustard vegan?
Yes, because mustard consists of vegetable mustard seeds, water, salt and vinegar. If spirit vinegar is used for production, then it is usually not made with gelatin. Thus, the mustard is vegan. However, if the list of ingredients contains wine vinegar or wine, then the label “vegan” is questioned, because gelatin is used in the production of wine. Sweet mustard is made with sugar or honey. If sweet mustard contains honey, then it is not vegan. Also, be careful with flavors and preservatives. Then better ask the manufacturer if the mustard is vegan.